Part I Basic Principles and Methods

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Part I Basic Principles and Methods DOH-NEC

FETPAFI

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EPIDEMIOLOGY “The study of the distribution and

determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,and the application of this study to the control of health problems.” FETPAFI

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1. Public health surveillance 2. Disease investigation 3. Analytic studies 4. Program evaluation FETPAFI

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Descriptive Epidemiology  What  Who - person 

Where - place

 When – time FETPAFI

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Analytic Epidemiology

 How

 Why FETPAFI

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EPIDEMIOLOGIC DESIGN STRATEGIES

Descriptive Studies • Populations (Correlational studies) Case Reports • Individuals Case Series Cross-Sectional Surveys 2. Analytic Studies • Observational Studies Case-control studies Cohort Studies • Intervention Studies FETPAFI

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Part 2:

Descriptive Epidemiology FETPAFI

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Descriptive Epidemiology Concerned with the distribution of disease, including what populations do or do not develop a disease, in what geographic locations it is most or least common, and how the frequency of occurrence varies over time.

FETPAFI

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Descriptive Epidemiology Study of the occurrence and distribution of disease in terms of: •Time  when does the disease occur commonly or 

rarely? is the frequency of disease at present different from the frequency in the past?

•Place  where the rates of disease highest or lowest? •Person  who is getting the disease? FETPAFI

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• Secular Long time trend of disease occurrence • Seasonal Variations based on climatic factors • Day of week and time of day Analysis at shorter time periods FETPAFI

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EPIDEMIC No. of Cases 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Time

Increase in the incidence above the expected in a defined area within a defined period of time FETPAFI

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Place Refers to the geographic area in which contact between susceptible host and etiologic agent occurred Residence Workplace Municipality Province Country

Birthplace District City Region State FETPAFI

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Person Organizing epidemiologic data according to the characteristics of the people involved •Age •Sex •Race •Religion

•Social Status •Life style •Dietary habits •Medication use

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Types of Descriptive Studies Correlational studies  Use data from entire populations to

compare disease frequencies between groups during the same period or in the same population at different points in time

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Example 1. Correlational Study Correlation between per capita meat consumption and colon cancer among women in various countries

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Types of Descriptive Studies Case reports Detailed report of the profile of a patient

single

Case series Describes characteristics of a number of patients with a given disease

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Types of Descriptive Studies •

CrossCross-Sectional Surveys The status of an individual with respect to the presence or absence of both exposure and disease is assessed at the same point in time

FETPAFI

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Part I Basic Principles and Methods

Part I Basic Principles and Methods DOH-NEC FETPAFI 1 EPIDEMIOLOGY “The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or eve...

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