The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815

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AP European History: Period 2.7 Teacher’s Edition

The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 Chronology and periodization are very important for this unit. The “Age of Montesquieu” (Constitutional Monarchy)

The “Age of Rousseau” (Republic)

Nat’l Assembly: 1789-1791  Tennis Court Oath  Storming of the Bastille  Great Fear and abolition of feudalism  Civil Constitution of the Clergy  Declaration of the Rights of Man Legislative Assembly: 179192  Jacobins vs. Girondins  War of the First Coalition  Paris Commune  September Massacres

Nat’l Convention: 1792-1795  Creation of the Republic  Execution of Louis XVI  Committee of Public Safety  Reign of Terror  Thermidorian Reaction

I.

The Directory: 1795-99  Ruling bourgeoisie vs. aristocracy and sans-culottes  Coup d’etat Brumaire

Concept Outline

Learning Objectives

The “Age of Voltaire” (Napoleon and Enlightened Despotism) Consulate: 1799-1804  Code Napoleon  Concordat of 1801  War of the 2nd Coalition

Napoleonic Empire: 1804-15  Confederation of the Rhine  Continental System  Treaty of Tilsit  Peninsular War  Russian Campaign  Waterloo

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) A. Born of Italian descent to a prominent Corsican family on the French island of Corsica B. Military genius who specialized in artillery C. Avid “child of the Enlightenment” and the French Revolution D. Associated with the Jacobins and advanced rapidly in the army due to vacancies caused by the emigration of aristocratic officers E. Eventually inspired a divided country during the Directory period into a unified nation but at the price of individual liberty

II. Consulate Period: 1799-1804 (Enlightened Reform) A. He took power on December 25, 1799 with the constitution giving supreme power to Napoleon. 1. As First Consul, Napoleon behaved more as an absolute ruler than as a revolutionary statesman.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 2. He sought to govern France by demanding loyalty to the state, rewarding ability, and creating an effective hierarchical bureaucracy.  However, wealth determined status. 3. Napoleon may be thought of as the last and most eminent of the enlightened despots. B. Reforms 1. Napoleon Code— Legal unity provided the first clear and complete codification of French Law. a. Perhaps the longest lasting legacy of Napoleon’s rule  Included a civil code, code of criminal procedure, a commercial code, and a penal code  Emphasized the protection of private property b. Resulted in a strong central gov’t and administrative unity c. Many achievements of the Revolution were made permanent.  Equality before the law: no more estates, legal classes, privileges, local liberties, hereditary offices, guilds, or manors  Freedom of religion  The state was secular in character  Property rights  Abolition of serfdom  Women gained inheritance rights d. Denied women equal status with men (except inheritance rights)  Women and children were legally dependent on their husband or father.  Divorce was more difficult to obtain than during the Revolution.  Women could not buy or sell property or begin a business without the consent of their husbands.  Income earned by wives went to their husbands.  Penalties for adultery were far more severe for women than men. 2. “Careers Open to talent” a. Citizens theoretically were able to rise in gov’t service purely according to their abilities. b. However, a new imperial nobility was created to reward the most talented generals and officials. c. Wealth determined status.  The middle class benefited significantly.  The gov’t rewarded wealthy people who effectively served the state with pensions, property or titles. o Over one-half of titles were given to those who had served in the military.  Napoleon created 3,600 titles between 1808 and 1814. o Yet, the number of nobles in France in 1814 only totaled 1/7 of the nobles that had existed in the Old Regime.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 d.

Neither military commissions nor civil offices could be bought and sold. e. He granted amnesty to 100K émigrés in return for a loyalty oath.  Many soon occupied high posts in the expanding state. f. Some nobles from foreign countries (e.g. Italy, Netherlands and Germany) served the empire with distinction. g. The working-class movement (e.g. sans-culottes) was no longer politically significant.  Workers were denied the right to form trade unions. 3. Religious reforms a. Concordat of 1801 with the Roman Catholic Church  Napoleon’s motives: o Making peace with the Church would help weaken its link to monarchists who sought a restoration of the Bourbons. o Religion would help people accept economic inequalities in French society.  Provisions: o The pope renounced claims to Church property that had been seized during the Revolution. o The French gov’t had power to nominate or depose bishops. o In return, priests who had resisted the Civil Constitutions of the Clergy would replace those who had sworn an oath to the state. o Since the pope gave up claim to Church lands, those citizens who had acquired them pledged loyalty to Napoleon’s gov’t. o Catholic worship in public was allowed. o Church seminaries were reopened. o Extended legal toleration to Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and atheists who all received the same civil rights. o It replaced the Revolutionary Calendar with the Christian calendar. b. To dispel the notion of an established church, Napoleon put Protestant ministers of all denominations on the state payroll. 4. Financial unity a. The Bank of France (1800) served the interests of the state and the financial oligarchy.  It was a revived version of one of the banks of the Old Regime. b. The gov’t balanced the national budget. c. The gov’t established sound currency and public credit.  This was far superior to the chaos surrounding the assignats during the Revolution. d. Economic reforms stimulated the economy:  Provided food at low prices  Increased employment

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 

Lowered taxes on farmers Guaranteed that church lands redistributed during the Revolution remained in hands of the new owners, mostly peasants  Created an independent peasantry that would be the backbone of French democracy.  Tax collections became more efficient.  Workers were not allowed to form guilds or trade  unions. o Retained the Le Chapelier Law of 1791 5. Educational reforms were based on a system of public education under state control. a. Rigorous standards; available to the masses b. Secondary and higher education (called lycées) were reorganized to prepare young men for gov’t service and professional occupations. c. Education became important in determining social standing: one system for those who could spend 12 or more years at school; the other for boys who entered the work force at age of 12 or 14. d. Napoleon sought to increase the size of the middle class. 6. Creation of a police state. a. A spy system kept thousands of citizens under continuous surveillance. b. After 1810, political suspects were held in state prisons (as they had been during the Terror).  2,500 political prisoners existed in 1814. c. The gov’t ruthlessly put down opposition, especially guerrillas in the western provinces of the Vendèe and Brittany. d. Napoleon’s most publicly notorious action was the 1804 arrest and execution of a Bourbon, the duke of Enghien, who had allegedly took part in a plot against Napoleon.  There was no evidence he was involved with the plot.  European public opinion was livid. 7. Drawbacks of Napoleon’s reforms a. Severe inequality for women (see above) b. Workers not allowed to form trade unions c. Repressed liberty, subverted republicanism, and restored absolutism in France through the creation of a police state d. Practiced nepotism by placing his relatives on the thrones of nations he conquered (see below) III. Napoleonic Wars during the Consulate Era A. The series of wars were usually short and distinct. 1. Only Britain was at war continually with France at this time. 2. The four Great Powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) did not fight France simultaneously until 1813. a. Nations were willing to ally with Napoleon for their own foreign policy benefit.

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b. Only gradually, after Napoleon had conquered Italy, did they decide Napoleon had to be defeated for a peaceful Europe. B. War of the Second Coalition: 1798-1801 1. Napoleon had his navy destroyed by England’s Lord Horatio Nelson in the Battle of the Nile (1798).  Napoleon and the French army were thus isolated in North Africa. 2. Napoleon was victorious in the war, nevertheless. 3. Treaty of Lunèville (1801) a. Ended the Second Coalition b. Resulted in Austria’s loss of its Italian possessions c. German territory on the west bank of the Rhine was incorporated into France. d. Russia retreated from western Europe when they saw their ambitions in the Mediterranean blocked by the British. e. Britain again was isolated. C. Saint Domingue (Haiti) 1. Napoleon sent a large army to Haiti to subdue a slave rebellion there. a. French forces were decimated by disease and slave rebels. b. Haitian forces were led by Toissant L’Ouverture. 2. The Haitians were motivated by French Revolutionary ideals of freedom from absolute rule and natural rights. 3. Haiti won its independence from France in 1804. 4. Napoleon sold Louisiana in North America to the U.S. as his hopes for re-creating an American empire were squelched by the Haitian revolt and an impending war with Britain. IV. Empire Period, 1804-1814 (War and Defeat) A. On December 2, 1804, Napoleon crowned himself hereditary Emperor of France in Notre-Dame Cathedral. 1. He hoped to preempt plans of royalists to return the Bourbons to the throne. 2. He believed an empire was necessary for France to maintain and expand its influence throughout Europe. 3. Napoleon viewed himself as a liberator who freed foreign peoples from the absolute rulers who oppressed them. 4. His domination over other nations unleashed the forces of nationalism in those countries which ultimately resulted in his downfall. B. The Grand Empire 1. Beginning in 1805, Napoleon engaged in constant warfare. 2. Eventually, Napoleon achieved the largest empire since Roman times (although it was only temporary). a. France extended to the Rhine, including Belgium and

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INT-7

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 Holland, the German coast to the western Baltic, and the Italian coast extending down to Rome. b. Dependent satellite kingdoms where Napoleon took leadership or placed his appointees on the throne:  Confederation of the Rhine: Napoleon was its “Protector”  His brother, Joseph Bonaparte, became king of Spain in 1808.  His youngest brother, Jerome, became king of Westphalia.  His brother, Louis, was king of Holland for 6 years before Napoleon had him removed and incorporated Holland into France.  Italy o His sister, Caroline, became Queen of Naples. o Lombardy, Venice and Papal States were ruled by his step-son. o He abolished feudalism and reformed the social, political, and economic structures. o He decided against creating a unified Italy since it might one day threaten his influence.  Duchy of Warsaw  Illyrian Provinces, which included Trieste and the Dalmatian coast 3. Independent but allied states included: Austria, Prussia and Russia. 4. All countries of the Grand Empire saw the introduction of some of the main principles of the French Revolution. a. Notable exception: no self-gov’t through elected legislative bodies. b. Initially, Napoleon was supported by commercial and professional classes who supported the Enlightenment. c. Repression and exploitation eventually turned his conquered territories against him.  Conscription into the French army  Higher taxes (while taxes in France were lowered)  Continental System d. Enlightenment reformers believed Napoleon had betrayed the ideals of the Revolution. C. War of the Third Coalition, 1805-1807 1. In 1803, Napoleon began preparations to invade Great Britain. 2. In 1805, Austria signed an alliance with Britain. 3. The coalition was complete with the addition of Russia under Tsar Alexander I (grandson of Catherine the Great) and Sweden. 4. Napoleon’s conquest of Italy convinced Russia and Austria that Napoleon was a threat to the balance of power. 5. Battle of Trafalgar, October 21, 1805 a. French and Spanish fleets were destroyed by the British navy under the command of Lord Horatio

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815

6.

7. 8. 9.

Nelson, off the Spanish coast.  This established the supremacy of the British navy for over a century. b. A French invasion of Britain was no longer feasible. c. Though killed in the battle, Nelson became one of the great military heroes in English history. Battle of Austerlitz, December, 1805 (Moravia) a. Alexander I pulled Russian troops out of the battle, giving Napoleon another victory on land. b. Austria accepted large territorial losses in return for peace. c. The Third Coalition collapsed. d. Napoleon was now the master of western and central Europe e. In commemoration of his victory, Napoleon commissioned the Arc de Triomphe in 1806.  Using a classical style, the Arc hearkened back to the Roman Empire when the Caesars would build arches to signify important victories.  Napoleon was clearly emphasizing the conquest of an empire. Prussia was twice defeated by Napoleon in 1806 at the Battle of Jena and at Auerstadt. Alexander I of Russia sought peace after Napoleon won another victory in the spring of 1807. Treaty of Tilsit, June 1807 a. Provisions:  Prussia lost half its population in lands ceded to France.  Russia accepted Napoleon’s reorganization of western and central Europe.  Russia also agreed to accept Napoleon’s Continental System. b. In many ways, the treaty represented the height of Napoleon’s success.  French and Russian empires became allies, mainly against Britain.  Alexander accepted Napoleon’s domination of western Europe.  France continued to occupy Berlin and enjoyed increased control in western Germany.

D. Reorganization of Germany 1. After soundly defeating the two most powerful and influential German states—Austria and Prussia—Napoleon reorganized Germany. 2. He consolidated many of the nearly 300 independent political entities. a. Confederation of the Rhine: 15 German states minus Austria, Prussia, and Saxony.  Napoleon named himself “Protector” of the Confederation.  Many tiny German states were abolished.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 b. The Holy Roman Empire was abolished; the emperor had traditionally been the ruler of Austria. c. A new kingdom of Westphalia was created out of all Prussian territories west of the Elbe and territories taken from Hanover. d. Serfdom was abolished and peasants now had the right to own land and move about freely. e. Napoleon unwittingly awoke German nationalism due to France’s domination and repression of the German states. E. The Continental System 1. Napoleon decided to wage economic warfare against Britain after his loss at the Battle of Trafalgar. 2. Through shifting alliances, Britain had consistently maintained the balance of power against France. 3. Berlin Decree, 1806: Napoleon sought to starve Britain out by closing ports on the continent to British commerce.  Napoleon coerced Russia, Prussia, neutral Denmark and Portugal, and Spain all to adhere to the boycott in the Treaty of Tilsit (1807). 4. England, in response, issued the “order in council”: neutrals might enter continental ports only if they first stopped in Great Britain. a. Regulations encouraged these ships to be loaded with British goods before continuing on to the Continent. b. British sought to strangle French trade, not French imports of British goods. 5. Milan Decree, 1807: Napoleon’s response to the “order in council”  Any neutral ship entering a British port, or submitting to a British warship at sea, would be confiscated by if it attempted to enter a Continental port. 6. War of 1812: U.S. eventually declared war against Britain in defense of its neutral shipping rights. 7. The Continental System ultimately was a major failure. a. It caused widespread antagonism to Napoleon’s rule in Europe. b. Imports from America were too much in demand in Europe. c. European industries could not equal Britain’s industrial output. d. Without railroads, the Continental system was impossible to maintain. e. Shippers, shipbuilders, and dealers in overseas goods, a powerful element of the older bourgeoisie, were ruined.  Eastern Europeans especially were hard hit as they had no industry and were dependent on imports. f. British made up lost trade with Europe by expanding exports to Latin America.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 F. The Peninsular War (1808-1814) 1. The first great revolt against Napoleon’s power occurred in Spain. 2. When Napoleon tried to tighten his control over Spain by replacing the Spanish King with his brother, Joseph, the Spanish people waged a costly guerrilla war. a. They received aid from the British under one of their ablest commanders, the Duke of Wellington. b. France suffered from Britain’s counter-blockade resulting in the Continental System’s failure. c. Looking for a scapegoat, Napoleon turned on Alexander I of Russia, who had actually supported his blockade against Britain. G. In 1810, Napoleon married Marie Louise, the 18-year-old daughter of the Austrian emperor and niece of Marie Antoinette.  By marriage, Napoleon was now the nephew of Louis XVI and he began to show more consideration to French noblemen of the Old Regime. H. Russian Campaign (1812) 1. Napoleon invaded Russia in June of 1812, with his Grand Army of 600,000. a. Only 1/3 of his forces were French. b. Cause: Russia withdrew from the Continental System due to economic hardships it had caused. 2. Napoleon was forced to retreat from Moscow after 5 weeks during the brutal Russian winter due to the “scorched earth” tactic of the Russians.  The Russians evacuated, then burned Moscow and refused to negotiate. 3. Only 30,000 men in Napoleon’s army returned to their homelands. a. 400,000 died of battle casualties, starvation, and exposure. b. 100,000 were taken prisoner. 4. Napoleon raced home to raise another army while Austria and Prussia deserted Napoleon and joined Russia and Great Britain in the Fourth Coalition. I.

War of the Fourth Coalition: (1813-1814) Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia 1. Battle of Leipzig (“Battle of Nations”), October, 1813: Napoleon was finally defeated. a. Napoleon lost 500,000 of his 600,000 Grand Army. b. It was the largest battle in world history until the 20th century. 2. Napoleon refused to accept the terms of Austrian foreign minister Metternich’s “Frankfurt Proposals” to reduce France to its historical size in return for his remaining on the throne. 3. The Quadruple Alliance was created in March, 1814.  Each power agreed to provide 150,000 soldiers to enforce peace terms.

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4. Napoleon abdicated as emperor on April 4, 1814 after allied armies entered Paris. 5. The Bourbons were restored to the throne; Louis XVIII. a. Charter of 1814: the king created a two-house legislature that represented only the upper classes.  It was the first constitution in European history issued by a monarch. b. The restoration maintained most of Napoleon’s reforms such as the Code Napoleon, the Concordat with the pope, and the abolition of feudalism. 6. The “first” Treaty of Paris, May 30, 1814 a. France surrendered all territory gained since the Wars of the Revolution had begun in 1792. b. Allied powers imposed no indemnity or reparations (after Louis XVIII had refused to pay). 7. Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba as a sovereign with an income from France. 8. The Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet in Vienna to work out a general peace settlement. V. Congress of Vienna (September 1814-June 1815) A. Representatives of the major powers of Europe, including France, met to redraw territorial lines and to try and restore the social and political order of the ancien regime. B. The “Big Four”: Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia 1. Klemens Von Metternich represented Austria. a. He epitomized conservative reaction to the French Revolution and its aftermath. b. He opposed ideas of liberals and reformers because of the impact such forces would have on the multinational Hapsburg Empire. 2. England was represented by Lord Castlereagh.  He sought a balance of power by surrounding France with larger and stronger states. 3. Prussia sought to recover Prussian territory lost to Napoleon in 1807 and gain additional territory in northern Germany (e.g. Saxony). 4. Czar Alexander I represented Russia.  He demanded a “free” and “independent” Poland, with himself as its king. 5. France later became involved in the deliberations.  Represented by Talleyrand, the French Foreign Minister C. Principles of Settlement: Legitimacy, Compensation, Balance of Power 1. “Legitimacy” meant returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare. a. Bourbons were restored in France, Spain, and Naples. b. Dynasties were restored in Holland, Sardinia, Tuscany and Modena. c. The Papal States were returned to the pope.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815

2. “Compensation” meant territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon. a. England received naval bases (Malta, Ceylon, Cape of Good Hope). b. Austria recovered the Italian province of Lombardy and was awarded adjacent Venetia as well as Galicia (from Poland), and the Illyrian Provinces along the Adriatic. c. Russia was given most of Poland, with the tsar as king, as well as Finland and Bessarabia (modern-day Moldova and western Ukraine). d. Prussia was awarded the Rhineland, 3/5 of Saxony, and part of Poland. e. Sweden received Norway. 3. “Balance of Power”: It arranged the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war. a. The encirclement of France was achieved through the following:  A strengthened Netherlands o United the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) with Holland to form the Kingdom of the United Netherlands north of France.  Prussia received Rhenish lands bordering on the eastern French frontier (left bank of the Rhine).  Switzerland received a guarantee of perpetual neutrality. b. End of the Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire  Austrian influence over the German states was enhanced by creating the German Confederation (Bund) of 39 states out of the original 300, with Austria designated as President of the Diet (Assembly) of the Confederation.  It maintained Napoleon’s reorganization.  It was a loose confederation where members remained virtually sovereign. c. Sardinia (Piedmont) had its former territory restored, with the addition of Genoa. d. A compromise on Poland was reached—“Congress Poland” was created with Alexander I of Russia as king; it lasted 15 years. e. Only Britain remained as a growing power as she began her century of world leadership from 1814 to 1914. D. Hundred Days (March 20-June 22, 1815) 1. Napoleon capitalized on the stalled talks at Vienna and escaped Elba for France. 2. The Hundred Days began on March 1, 1815, when Napoleon landed in the south of France and marched with large-scale popular support, into Paris.  He seized power from Louis XVIII, who fled Paris. 3. Napoleon raised an army and then defeated a Prussian army in Belgium on June 16, 1815.

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4. Battle of Waterloo, June 1815 a. Last battle of the Napoleonic Wars b. Napoleon was defeated in Waterloo, Belgium, by England’s army led by the Duke of Wellington and Prussian forces. 5. Napoleon was exiled to the South Atlantic island of St. Helena, far off the coast of Africa, where he died in 1821. 6. The “second” Treaty of Paris (1815): the Quadruple Alliance now dealt harshly with France in subsequent negotiations. a. It contained minor changes to the borders previously agreed to. b. France had to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs for loss of life. VI. Evaluation of Napoleon’s rule A. It was the first egalitarian dictatorship of modern times. B. Positive achievements 1. Revolutionary institutions were consolidated. 2. The French gov’t was thoroughly centralized. 3. He made a lasting settlement with the Church. 4. Spread positive achievements of the French Revolution to the rest of Europe. C. Impact on other countries 1. Serfdom was abolished in much of Germany by 1807. 2. Germany was reorganized into 39 states. 3. Prussia and Austria, for self-preservation, reformed their military and provided some reforms. D. Liabilities 1. Repressed individual liberty 2. Subverted republicanism 3. Oppressed conquered peoples throughout Europe 4. Caused terrific suffering as a result of war

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REVIEW MATERIAL FOR 2.6 VII. French Revolution Evaluated A. Results of the Revolution 1. The old social system was destroyed and replaced with a new one based on equality, ability and the law. 2. It guaranteed the triumph of capitalism. 3. It gave birth to the notion of secular democracy. 4. It laid the foundations for the establishment of a modern nation-state. B. Some modern historians have challenged the traditional view of the origins of the French Revolution. 1. Some argue that key sections of the nobility were liberal. 2. Others point out that the nobility and the bourgeoisie were not necessarily economic rivals. C. Historians have traditionally Revolution ended in failure.

concluded

that

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French

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 D. The Revolution can be seen as having numerous successes. 1. After the fall of Robespierre, the solid middle class, with its liberal philosophy and Enlightenment world-view, reasserted itself. a. Under the Directory, it salvaged a good portion of social and political gains that it and the peasantry had made between 1789 and 1791. b. The old pattern of separate legal orders and absolute monarchy was never re-established. 2. Napoleon built on the policies of the Directory. a. He added the support of old nobility and the Church to that of the middle class and the peasantry. b. He promoted the reconciliation of old and new orders. c. He centralized the government. d. He encouraged Careers open to Talent. 3. Louis XVIII had to accept French society based on wealth and achievement. a. Granted representative gov’t and civil liberties. b. Core of the French Revolution thus survived a generation of war and dictatorship. VIII. How did the French Revolution embody the ideas of the Enlightenment? A. Scientific and rational thought led to a desire for political reform. 1. Progress in all fields, including government, was seen as necessary and possible. 2. Political science could be based on natural laws. The economy, too, was made more “rational” through the ending of internal barriers to trade. B. Phase One. The Age of Montesquieu: Pre-1789—The Monarchy 1. In The Spirit of the Laws (1753), Montesquieu argued for a constitutional monarchy and a liberal government.  He advocated a separation of powers (three branches) among the nobles, the monarchy, and the representatives of the cities to replace the Old Regime. 2. The Declaration of the Rights of Man called for the freedom of expression, representative government, and equality before the law. C. Phase Two. The Age of Rousseau: September 1792November 1799—The Republic 1. The Social Contract expressed the following republican views: a. Popular Sovereignty—to have freedom, the people must control their own government. b. Christianity should be replaced by a civil religion. c. Force might legitimately be used to bring about freedom; a strong government might be needed to express the “general will.” 2. These ideas were adopted not only by the Republic, but also by the Committee of Public Safety.

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 D. Phase Three. The Period of Voltaire: 1799-1815— Napoleon 1. Voltaire had argued for “enlightened absolutism.” a. An efficient, organized state was the best design to bring about “progress.” b. A centralized state was not necessarily a threat to freedom; in fact it might increase freedom by reducing the power of the Church and the Parlements. 2. Napoleon was attracted to Voltaire’s updating of the “philosopher-king” concept. a. Napoleon believed he was bringing “scientific” government to France and to Europe. b. Napoleon’s use of the plebiscite had not been contemplated by Voltaire, nor would Napoleon’s military campaigns been approved of by Voltaire.

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Terms to Know Napoleon Bonaparte Consulate Period First Consul Napoleonic Code Careers Open to Talent Concordat of 1801 Bank of France lycees St. Domingue (Haiti) Toissant L’Ouverture Jacques-Louis David Empire Period Grand Empire War of the Third Coalition Battle of Trafalgar Lord Horatio Nelson Battle of Austerlitz Arc de Triomphe Treaty of Tilsit

Confederation of the Rhine Continental System Peninsular War Russian Campaign War of the Fourth Coalition Battle of Leipzig Quadruple Alliance Louis XVIII Charter of 1814 “First” Treaty of Paris, 1814 Congress of Vienna Klemens von Metternich Legitimacy Compensation Balance of Power German Confederation (Bund) Hundred Days Battle of Waterloo Duke of Wellington

Essay Questions Note: This sub-unit is a low probability area for the AP exam. In the past 10 years, two essay questions have come in large part from the material in this chapter. However, Napoleon cannot be ignored for future AP exams! Below are some questions that will help you study the topics that have appeared on previous exams or may appear on future exams. 1. To what extent was Napoleon an “Enlightened Despot”? Contrast Napoleon’s rule with that of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II. 2. To what extent did Napoleon maintain the ideals of the French Revolution? 3. To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe by 1815? 4. To what extent did each of the following social groups succeed in achieving their goals during the Napoleonic Era? a. Clergy b. Aristocracy c. Bourgeoisie d. Urban working class e. Peasantry f. Women

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Overarching Questions and Themes from the AP® Curriculum Framework for Unit 2.7 How have encounters between Europe and the world shaped European culture, politics, and society? INT-7: Analyze how contact with non-European peoples increased European social and cultural diversity and effected attitudes toward race. (2.1.IV) 

 What impact has contact with Europe had on non-European societies? INT-10: Explain the extent of and causes for non-Europeans’ adoption of or resistance to European cultural, political, or economic values and institutions, and explain the causes of their reactions. (2.1.IV) INT-11: Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military, and cultural networks. (2.1.IV)  What were the causes and consequences of economic and social inequality? PP-10: Explain the role of social inequality in contributing to and affecting the nature of the French Revolution and subsequent revolutions throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. (2.1.V)  What forms have European governments taken, and how have these changed over time? SP-3: Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principal of religious toleration. (2.1.V) How and why did changes in warfare affect diplomacy, the European state system, and the balance of power? SP-13: Evaluate how the emergence of new weapons, tactics, and methods of military organization changed the scale and cost of warfare, required the centralization of power, and shifted the balance of power. (2.1.V) 

How did the concept of a balance of power emerge, develop, and eventually become institutionalized? SP-16: Explain how the French Revolution and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars shifted the European balance of power and encouraged the creation of a new diplomatic framework. (2.1.V) SP-17: Explain how the French Revolution and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars shifted the European balance of power and encouraged the creation of a new diplomatic framework. (2.1.V) 

How and why have tensions arisen between the individual and society over the course of European history? IS-6: Evaluate the causes and consequences of persistent tensions between women’s role and status in the private versus the private sphere. (2.1.V) IS-7: Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society. (2.1.V) 

 How and why has the status of specific groups within society changed over time? IS-9: Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefited from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onward. (2.1.V) IS-10: Analyze how and why European have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history. (2.1.V)

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HistorySage.com AP Euro Lecture Notes Period 2.7: The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815

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Bibliography: Principle Sources: College Board, AP European History Course and Exam Description (Including the Curriculum Framework), New York: College Board, 2015 Chambers, Mortimer, et al, The Western Experience, 8th ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003 McKay, John P., Hill, Bennett D., & Buckler, John, A History of Western Society, 5th Ed., Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995 Merriman, John, A History of Modern Europe: From the Renaissance to the Present, 2nd ed., New York: W. W. Norton, 2004 Palmer, R. R., Colton, Joel, and Kramer, Lloyd, A History of Europe in the Modern World, 10th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 2014 Other Sources: Chambers, Mortimer, et al, The Western Experience, 8th ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003 Hunt, Lynn, et al, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2001 Kagan, Donald, et al, The Western Heritage, 7th ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001 Kishlansky, Mark, et al, Civilization in the West, 5th ed., New York: Longman, 2003 Mercado, Steven and Young, Jessica, AP European History Teacher’s Guide, New York: College Board, 2007 Spielvogel, Jackson, Western Civilization, 5th ed., Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning, 2003

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The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815

AP European History: Period 2.7 Teacher’s Edition The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 Chronology and periodization are very important for this unit. The “A...

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